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Characterisation of aerosols

Diverse technologies for different tasks

Aerosols are ubiquitous. Either they are produced involuntarily through natural and anthropogenic processes or are synthetised to serve specific tasks. The behaviour of aerosols depends on their state of dispersion, i.e., on the form (including particle size distribution, material, morphology, charge) and the spatial distribution (including concentration) of the particles. Knowledge of these properties is the basis for many fields of work (occupational safety and environmental protection, research and development, testing and calibration) in which aerosols are important. Therefore, there is a high demand in industry, service companies, and government or scientific institutions for aerosol technologies for sampling, sample conditioning, and sample analysis.

 

Sampling

The starting point for the quality and reproducibility of any aerosol analysis is sampling, which must also meet specific requirements depending on the task. These include, among others:

  • isokinetic sampling by means of suitable sampling probes (e.g. SYS 528, SYS 529) to avoid over or under estimation, especially of particles greater than 1 µm
  • aerosol sampling from pressurised pipes and containers (SYS 525)
  • taking aerosol samples from different locations (e.g. with sampling switching units SYS 520, SYS 520/S, or SYS 521)
  • realisation of defined sampling volume flows (RFU 564)

 

Measures of conditioning

To avoid measurement artefacts and to protect the measurement technology used, targeted and defined measures of conditioning are usually required on the aerosol sample after sampling and prior to the actual aerosol analyses:

  • reduction of the particle concentration (dilution) to the aerosol-analytical optimum (DIL 5XY, DDS 560, VDS 562) depending on the respective measuring principle.
  • modulation of the aerosol charge state, e.g. targeted unipolar charging or neutralisation (EAN 581)
  • removal of volatile organic components (TDD 590)
  • loss-optimised sampling lines, e.g. electrically conductive lines (antistatic hose)

FOR US, IT’S ALL ABOUT SIZE.

Sample analysis

Only after sampling and conditioning does the actual particle characterisation concerning size and/or concentration take place. Depending on the analytical task, either individual devices are used or several techniques based on different physical measurement principles are combined for different size ranges. Therefore, we also have different technologies in our portfolio:

  • light scattering spectrometers (LAP 322, LAP 323) according to ISO 21501-1 for time-resolved analysis of particle size and concentration from 150 nm – 40 µm for highly-resolved characterisation of emissions, or for monitoring tasks
  • optical particle counters (LAP 340, LAP 340/L) according to ISO 21501-4 for time-resolved determination of particle size distribution and concentration for cleanroom applications, i.e., for lowest concentrations
  • process aerosol monitor (PAM 510) for monitoring particle concentrations and mean particle diameter
  • aerosol photometers (PAP 610, PAP 612) for the characterization of particle mass concentration in higher concentrated aerosols
  • flame photometer (FAP 620) for the determination of salt concentration (sodium, potassium and lithium) in aerosols

Our technical solution

LAP 323

LAP 323 Aerosol Spectrometer for analysis of particle size distributions and particle number concentrations in aerosols, Dual Wave Length Technology

New
Aerosol particle size spectrometer LAP 323 frontside
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RFU 564

Regulated Flow Unit RFU 564 for providing variable adjustable and controlled air flow rates up to 100 L/min for underpressure and overpressure operation mode

New
Regulated Flow Unit RFU 564, front view
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VDS 562

Variable Dilution System VDS 562 for variable adjustable, pressure drop compensated dilution of aerols at defined air flow rates

New
Aerosol Dilution System VDS 562 frontside
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DDS 560

Dynamic Dilution System DDS 560 for variable-adjustable dilution of aerosols at variable air flow rates

DDS 560 Dynamic Dilution System for Aerosols side view
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DIL 540/C

DIL 540/C Dilution System for controlled static dilution (1:100) of aerosols at static air flow rate (28,3 L/min), digital status communication

Dilution System for Aerosols DIL 540/C, front view
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DIL 541/C

DIL 541/C Dilution System for controlled static dilution (1:10) of aerosols at static air flow rate (28,3 L/min), digital status communication

Dilution System for Aerosols DIL 541, front view
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DIL 545/C

DIL 545/C Dilution System for controlled static dilution (1:100) of aerosols at static air flow rate (3 L/min), digital status communication

Dilution System for Aerosols DIL 540, front view
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DIL 546/C

DIL 546/C Dilution System for controlled static dilution (1:10) of aerosols at static air flow rate (3 L/min), digital status communication

Dilution System for Aerosols DIL 540, front view
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DIL 550

Dilution System DIL 550 for static dilution (1:100) of aerosols at static air flow rate (28,3 L/min)

Dilution System for Aerosols DIL 550, frontal view
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DIL 551

Dilution System DIL 551 for static dilution (1:10) of aerosols at static air flow rate (28,3 L/min)

DIL 550 Dilution System for Aerosols, type 551, view from right side
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DIL 552

Dilution System DIL 552 for static dilution (customised) of aerosols at static air flow rate (28,3 L/min)

Dilution System for Aerosols DIL 552, frontal view
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DIL 553

DIL 553 Dilution System for static dilution (1:100 or 1:10) of aerosols at static air flow rate (56,6 or 50 L/min)

Dilution System for Aerosols DIL 553, frontal view
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DIL 555

DIL 555 Dilution System for static dilution (1:100) of aerosols at static air flow rate (2,83 L/min)

Dilution System for Aerosols DIL 555, frontal view
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DIL 556

DIL 556 Dilution System for static dilution (1:10) of aerosols at static air flow rate (2,83 L/min)

Dilution System for Aerosols DIL 556, frontal view
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DIL 557

DIL 550 Dilution System for static dilution (customised) of aerosols at static air flow rate (customised)

Dilution System for Aerosols DIL 557, frontal view
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EAN 581

Electrostatic Aerosol Neutralizer EAN 581 for generation of positive and/or negative ions for neutralisation or unipolar charging of aerosols

Electrostatic Aerosol Neutralizer EAN 581 frontside
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LAP 322

LAP 322 Aerosol Spectrometer for analysis of particle size distributions and particle number concentrations in aerosols, monochrome light

Laser Aerosol Spectrometer LAP 322, front view
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LAP 340/L

Optical Particle Counter LAP 340/L for analysis of particle size distributions and particle concentrations in aerosols, best for filter testing (2,83 L/min)

Laser Aerosol Particle Counter LAP 340, front view
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PAM 510

Process Aerosol Monitor PAM 510 for analysis of mean particle size and particle concentration in monodisperse aerosols

Process Aerosol Monitor PAM 510, frontal view
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PASWin

Software PASWin for configuration, control, data logging and data analyses of particle counters and aerosol spectrometer

Particle Analysis Software PASWin, measurement result at the monitor display
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SYS 520

Sample Switching Unit SYS 520 for sampling aerosol samples from to two sample location

Sample Switching Unit SYS 520, frontal view
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TDD 590

Thermodenuder TDD 590 for removal of volatile organic components (VOC) from aerosols

TDD 590 Thermodenuder, frontside
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